Amy Lee, MD

Portrait of Amy Lee M.D.
Job Title
Chief of Neurological Surgery Service at Seattle Children’s
Professor of Neurological Surgery
Associate Residency Program Director
Director, Pediatric Neurosurgery Fellowship
Co-Director Neurosciences Center, Seattle Children’s Hospital
Co-Director Neurocritical Care Program, Seattle Children’s Hospital
Surgical Director, Pediatric Brain Tumor Program, Seattle Children’s Hosp.

Dr. Amy Lee is a professor of neurological surgery and an attending neurosurgeon at Seattle Children's Hospital. Dr. Lee received her undergraduate degree from the College of William and Mary. She then received her M.D. from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. She went on to complete a seven-year neurological surgery residency at Washington University in St. Louis School of Medicine/Barnes Jewish Hospital. She spent six months as a specialist registrar in neurosurgery at Beaumont Hospital in Dublin, Ireland. She then went on to complete her pediatric neurosurgery fellowship at St. Louis Children's Hospital.

Clinical Interest

Craniofacial anomalies; spinal dysraphism; hydrocephalus; brain tumors.

Research Interests

MR imaging techniques; diffusion tensor imaging in traumatic brain injury; spinal cord injury.


Medical Education

University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio


Barnes Jewish Hospital


Barnes Jewish Hospital


Washington University/St. Louis Children's Hospital

Board Certification
American Board of Neurological Surgery - 2016
American Board of Pediatric Neurological Surgery - 2017
Contact Information

Seattle Children’s Hospital
4800 Sand Point Way NE, M/S OA.9.220
Seattle, WA 98105
(206) 987-3560



  1. Lee A, Wright NM. Occiput, C1 and C2 Instrumentation. Youmans Neurological Surgery, 6th Edition. Winn HR (ed). Elsevier Publishing. 2011
  2. McEvoy S, Lee A. Brainstem and Cervicomedullary Tumors. Atlas of Neurosurgical Techniques, 2nd Edition. Sekhar LN & Fessler RG (eds). Thieme publishing. 2015
  3. Abecassis IJ, Lee A. "Chapter 9: Intracranial and Spinal Trauma". In: McElroy LM and Webb TP eds. Surgery Review Illustrated 2e. McGraw-Hill Education, New York, NY 2015
  4. Abecassis IJ, Lee A. "Chapter 35: Neurosurgery". In: McElroy LM and Webb TP eds. Surgery Review Illustrated 2e. McGraw-Hill Education, New York, NY 2015
  5. Chiarelli P, Impastato K, Gruss J, Lee A. Traumatic Skull and Facial Fractures. Principles of Neurological Surgery, 4th Edition. Ellenbogen RG, Sekhar LN, & Kitchen N (eds). Elsevier Publishing. 2018
  6. Lee A, Ellenbogen RG. Unicoronal Craniosynostosis. Neurosurgery by Example: Key Cases and Fundamental Principles Clinical Series. Selden N & Baird L (eds). Oxford University Press. January 2019
  7. Lee A, Ellenbogen RG. Endoscopic Assisted versus Open Craniosynostosis Surgery. Controversies in Neuroendoscopy. Zaidi HA & Nakaji PN (eds). Thieme Medical Publishers. New York, NY. September 2019
  8. Hopper RA, Lee A. Posterior Cranial Vault Distraction Osteogenesis. Operative Techniques in Plastic Surgery. Walters-Kluwer Inc. May 2019
  9. Morgenstern PF, Bonow RH, Abecassis IJ, Browd SR, Lee A. Chapter 59: Critical Care Considerations for Common Neurosurgical Conditions. Pediatric Critical Care 6th ed. February 2021.


  1. Heartsill L, Richards ML, Arfai N, Lee A, Bingener-Casey J, Schwesinger WH, Sirinek KR. Open Rives-Stoppa ventral hernia repair made simple and successful but not for everyone.  Hernia. 2005 May;9(2):162-6. Epub 2005 Feb 19.
  2. Ray WZ, Lee A, Blackburn SL, Lueder GT, Leonard JR. Pseudotumor cerebri following tapered corticosteroid treatment in an 8-month-old infant. J Neurosurg Pediatrics. 2008 Jan;1(1):88-90.
  3. Sun S-W, Liang H-F, Xie M, Oyoyo U, Lee A. Fixation, not death, reduces sensitivity of DTI in detecting optic nerve damage. Neuroimage.2009 Feb 1;44(3):611-9.
  4. Lee A, Van Pelt AE, Smyth MD, Pilgram TK, Govier DP, Woo AS, Kane AA.  Comparison of Treatment Practices Between Neurosurgeons and Plastic Surgeons for Infants with Deformational Plagiocephaly. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Apr;5(4):368-74
  5. Reynolds MR, Ray WZ, Strom RG, Blackburn SL, Lee A, Park TS. Clinical Outcomes After Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy in an Adult Population. World Neurosurg. 2011 Jan;75(1):138-44.
  6. Lee A, Chen ML, Abeshaus S, Poliakov A, Ojemann JG. Posterior fossa tumors and their impact on sleep and ventilatory control: A clinical perspective. Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2013 May 28.
  7. Titus J, Lee A, Kasasbeh A, Thio L, Stephenson J, Steger-May K, Limbrick D, Smyth M. Health-related quality of life before and after pediatric epilepsy surgery: The influence of seizure outcome on changes in physical functioning and social functioning. Epilepsy Behav. 2013 Jun:27(30:477-83.
  8. Ojemann JG, Partridge SC, Poliakov AV, Niazi TN, Shaw DW, Ishak GE, Lee A, Browd SR, Geyer JR, Ellenbogen RG. Diffusion tensor imaging of the superior cerebellar peduncle identifies patients with posterior fossa syndrome. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Nov;29(11):2071-7.
  9. Morton R, Reynolds R, Ramakrishna R, Levitt M, Hopper RA, Lee A, Browd S. Low-dose head computed tomography in children: a single institutional experience in pediatric radiation risk reduction: clinical article. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Oct;12(4):406-10.
  10. Lee A, Yarbrough C, Greenberg J, Barber J, Limbrick D, Smyth M. Comparison of posterior fossa decompression with or without duraplasty in children with Type I Chiari malformation. Childs Nerv Syst. 2014 Aug;30(8):1419-24.
  11. Morton RP, Reynolds RM, Ramakrishna R, Levitt MR, Lee A, Browd SR. Response. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 May;13(5):586-7. PMID:24910864
  12. Smith MJ, Wallace AJ, Bennett C, Hasselblatt M, Elert-Dobkowska E, Evans LT, Hickey WF, van Hoff J, Bauer D, Lee A, Hevner RF, Beetz C, du Plessis D, Kilday JP, Newman WG, Evans DG. Germline SMARCE1 mutations predispose to both spinal and cranial clear cell meningiomas. The Journal of pathology. 2014;234(4):436-40. PMID:25143307 
  13. Apkon SD, Grady R, Hart S, Lee A, McNalley T, Niswander L, Peterson J, Remley S, Rotenstein D, Shurtleff H, Warner M, and Walker W. Advances in the care of children with spina bifida. Adv Pediatr. 2014 Aug;61(1):33-74
  14. McEvoy SD, Lee A, Poliakov A, Friedman S, Shaw D, Browd S, Ellenbogen R, Ojemann J, Mac Donald, CL. Longitudinal cerebellar diffusion tensor imaging changes in posterior fossa syndrome. NeuroImage: Clinical 12 (2016) 582-590
  15. Mundinger GS, Skladman R, Wenger T, Birgfeld CB, Gruss JS, Lee A, Ellenbogen RG, Hopper RA. Defining and correcting asymmetry in isolated unilateral frontosphenoidal synostosis: differences in orbital shape, facial scoliosis, and skull base twist compared to unilateral coronal synostosis: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery. 2017 Oct 23.
  16. Wang A, Ibrahim G, Poliakov A, Wang P, Fallah A, Mathern GW, Buckley R, Collins K, Weil A, Shurtleff H, Warner M, Perez F, Shaw D, Wright J, Saneto, R, Novotny E, Lee A, Browd S, Ojemann JG. Corticospinal Tract Atrophy and Motor fMRI Predict Motor Preservation after Functional Cerebral Hemispherectomy. Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. 2018 Jan;21(1):81-89.
  17. Wenger TL, Hopper RA, Rosen A, Tully HM, Cunningham ML, Lee A. A genotype-specific surgical approach for patients with Pfeiffer syndrome due to W290C pathogenic variant in FGFR2 is associated with improved developmental outcomes and reduced mortality. Genet Med. 2018 Jun 18.
  18. Clarke CM, Fok VT, Gustafson JA, Smyth MD, Timms AE, Frazar CD, Smith JD, Birgfeld CB, Lee A, Ellenbogen RG, Gruss JS, Hopper RA, Cunningham ML. Single Suture Craniosynostosis: Identification of Rare Genetic Variants in Genes Associated with Syndromic Forms. Am J Med Genet A. 2018 Feb;176(2):290-300.
  19. Cole B, Lockwood C, Stasi S, Stevens J, Lee A, Ojemann JG, Astion M, Ellenbogen, RG, Leary S. Year 1 in the molecular era of pediatric brain tumor diagnosis: Application of universal clinical targeted sequencing in an unselected cohort of children. JCO Precision Oncology, November 2018.
  20. Bayart CB, Ishak GE, Finn LS, Lee A, Baran F, Sun A, Gupta D. Vitanza NA. Pilocytic Astrocytoma with Leptomeningeal Spread in a Patient with Incontinentia Pigmenti presenting with Unilateral Nystagmus. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018 Mar;65(3).
  21. Wang A, Jones D, Abecassis I, Cole B, Leary S, Lockwood C, Chavez L, Capper D, Korshunov A, Fallah A, Wang S, Ene C, Olson J, Geyer R, Holland E, Lee A, Ellenbogen R, and Ojemann JG. Desmoplastic Infantile Ganglioglioma/Astrocytoma- (DIG/DIA) Are Distinct Entity with Frequent BRAFV600 Mutations. Mol Cancer Res. 2018 Oct;16(10):1491-1498
  22. Chiarelli PA, Patel AP, Lee A, Chandra SR, Sekhar LN. Sternocleidomastoid Encephalomyosynangiosis for Treatment of Resistant Moyamoya Disease. Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown). 2018 Aug 30.
  23. Kestle J, Lee A, Andreson R, Gociman B, Patel K, Smyth M, Birgfeld C, Pollack I, Goldstein J, Tamber M, Imahiverobo T, Siddiqi FA. Variation in the management of isolated craniosynostosis: A survey of the Synostosis Research Group (SynRG). J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2018 Dec 1;22(6):627-631.
  24. Maxey D, Lee A, Wenger T. “It’s Not the Shunt”. An Algorithm for the Assessment of Other Medically Actionable Causes of Vomiting in Children with Craniofacial Malformations. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2018 Dec 26:1055665618821219.
  25. Hopper RA, Lee A. Discussion: Craniometric Analysis of Endoscopic Sutrectomy for Bilateral Coronal Craniosynostois. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019 Jan;143(1):199-201.
  26. Barkley A, Susarla S, Lee A. Frontotemporal Dermal Sinus Tract with Two Connected Intra Diploic Dermoid Cysts: A Rare Case and Review of the Literature. World Neurosurgery. 2019 Mar 28. pii: S1878-8750(19)30902-7
  27. Lui MT, Khechoyan DY, Susarla SM, Skladman BA, Birgfeld CB, Gruss JS, Lee A, Ellenbogen RG, Pet MA, Hopper RA. Evolution of Bandeau Shape, Orbital Morphology, and Craniofacial Twist after Fronto-Orbital Advancement for Isolated Unilateral Coronal Synostosis: A Case-Control Study of 2-Year Outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2019 Jun;143(6):1703-1711.
  28. Lee JYKCho SS, Stummer WTanyi JLVahrmeijer ALRosenthal ESmith BHenderson ERoberts DWLee AHadjipanayis CGBruce JNNewman JGSinghal SReview of clinical trials in intraoperative molecular imaging during cancer surgery. J Biomed Opt. 2019 Dec;24(12):1-8.
  29. Maxey D, Lee A, Wenger T.  "It's Not the Shunt": Algorithm for the Assessment of Other Medically Actionable Causes of Vomiting in Children With Craniofacial Malformations. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2019 Jul;56(6):814-816.
  30. Tucker AM, Morgenstern P, Diaz D, Sedighim S, Shaul D, Sydorak R, Fedor M, Lee A, Hauptman J. Neurosurgical management of Currarino syndrome: A case series and review of literature. Surg Neurol Int. 2019 Apr 24;10:70. doi: 10.25259/SNI-26-2019. eCollection 2019.
  31. Pfeifauf KD, Naidoo SD, Skolnick GB, Kestle JR, Lee A, Anderson RCE, Gociman B, Birgfeld C, Pollack IF, Goldstein JA, Tamber M, Imahiyerobo T, Siddiqi FA, Smyth MD, Patel KB for the Synostosis Research Group. Evaluation of the Patient-Practitioner Consultation on Surgical Treatment Options for Patients with Craniosynostosis.  J of Craniofacial. July-August 2020 –Vol 31-Issue 5-p1186-1190.
  32. Nassar AH, Mercan E, Massenberg BB, Lee A, Brown JY, Skladman R, Guo Y, Hopper RA. Timing of ossification of the anterior skull base in syndromic synostosis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. J Craniofac Surg. 2020 July-Aug:31(5):1256-1260:
  33. Cho DY, Evans KN, Weed MC, Lee A, Srinivas M. Susarla SM. Bilateral Squamosal Suture Craniosynostosis Presenting with Abducens Nerve Palsy and Severe Papilledema. World Neurosurgery. World Neurosurg. 2020 Jun;138:344-348. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.03.079. Epub
  34. Cho DY, Birgfeld CB, Lee A, Ellenbogen RG, Susarla SM. A comparison of subgaleal versus subperiosteal dissection in open cranial vault expansion for sagittal craniosynostosis. World Neurosurgery. World Neurosurg. 2020 Nov;143:108-113. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2020.07.099. Epub 2020 Jul 22.PMID: 32711139
  35. Crotty EE, Leary SES, Geyer, JR, Olson JM, Millard NE, Sato AA, Ermoian RP, Bonnie Cole BL, Lockwood CM, Paulson VA, Browd SR, Ellenbogen RG, Hauptman JS, Lee A, Ojemann JG, Vitanza NA. Children with DIPG and other High-Grade Glioma Treated with Temozolomide, Irinotecan, and Bevacizumab: the Seattle Children’s Hospital Experience. J Neurooncol 2020 Jul;148(3):607-617. doi: 10.1007/s11060-020-03558-w. Epub 2020 Jun 16.
  36. Sobol DL, Lee A, Susarla SM. Unusual Combined Orbital Roof and Orbital Floor Fractures in A Pediatric Patient. Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2020 Dec 21;8(12):e3324. doi: 10.1097/GOX.0000000000003324. PMID: 33425626; PMCID: PMC7787296.
  37. Khalatbari H, Perez FA, Lee A, Shaw DWW. Rapid Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Spine in Neonates with Spinal Dysraphism. World Neurosurg. 2020 Dec;144:e648-e.659. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2020.09.013. Epub 2020 Sep 19.
  38. Barkley AS, Boop S, Barber JK, Lee A, Browd SR, Ojemann JG, Ellenbogen RG, Hauptman JS. Post-operative seizure after first time endoscopic third ventriculostomy in pediatric patients. Childs Nerv Syst. 2021 Feb 18.doi: 10.1007/s00381-021-05078-y.
  39. Sen RD, Lee A, Browd SR, Ellenbogen RG, Hauptman JS. Issues of consent and assent in pediatric neurosurgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2021 Jan;37(1):33-37. doi: 10.1007/s00381-020-04907-w.Epub 2020 Oct 17.
  40. Bass, DI, Lee A, Browd SR, Ellenbogen RG, Hauptman JS. Medicolegal issues in abusive head trauma for the pediatric neurosurgeon. Neurosurg Focus. 2020 Nov;49(5):E23. doi: 10.3171/2020.8.FOCUS20599.
  41. Kobets AJ, Nauen D, Lee A, Cohen AR. Unexpected Binding of Tozuleristide “Tumor Paint” to Cerebral Vascular Malformations: A Potentially Novel Application of Fluorescence-Guided Surgery. Neurosurgery. 2021 Apr 7;nyab106.doi: 10.1093/neuros/nyab106. PMID: 33826729
  42. Adidharma W, Mercan E, Purnell C, Birgfeld CB, Lee A, Ellenbogen RG, Hopper RA. Evolution of Cranioorbital Shape in Nonsyndromic, Muenke, and Saethre-Chotzen Bilateral Coronal Synostosis: A Case-Control Study of 2-Year Outcomes. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2021 Jan 1;147(1):148-159. doi: 10.1097/PRS.0000000000007494.PMID: 33370058
  43. Baker CM, Ravindra VM, Gociman B, Siddiqi FA, Goldstein JA, Smyth MD, Lee A, Anderson RCE, Patel KB, Birgfeld C, Pollack IF, Imahiyerobo T, Kestle JRW; Synostosis Research Group. Management of sagittal synostosis in the Synostosis Research Group: baseline data and early outcomes. Neurosurg Focus. 2021 Apr;50(4):E3.doi:10.3171/2021.1.FOCUS201029.PMID: 33794498
  44. Leary S, Blatt JE, Cohen AR, Cohen KJ, Cole B, Governale L, Gupta N, Hauptman JS, Jackson EM, Kebriaei MA, Kline C, Kobets A, Lee A, Miller DM, Mueller S, Ojemann JG, Prados M, Rahman M, Wright JN, Bendel AE, BB-006/PNOC012 Study Group. A phase II/III randomized, blinded study of tozuleristide for fluorescence imaging detection during neurosurgical resection of pediatric primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors: PNOC012 (Pacific Pediatric Oncology Consortium). Journal of Clinical Oncology 38, no.15_suppl 2020 May.doi: 10.1200/JCO.2020.38.15_suppl.TPS2575